English grammar

Module 9, Clauses, Lesson 4:

Adverb Clauses

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English grammar
Definition:
An adverb clause is a dependent clause that describes a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. An adverb clause tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions something happened.
We will not have school today because it snowed last night.
Until it stops raining, we will stay inside.
When your father gets here, we will go.

An adverb clause begins with a subordinating conjunction.

Some common (but not all) subordinating conjunctions

after
although
as
as if
as far as
as long as
as soon as
as though
because
before
even if
even though
how
if
in order that
once
provided (that)
rather than
since
so long as
so (that)
than
that
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where
wherever
whether
while
why
We will not have school today because it snowed last night.
Until it stops raining, we will stay inside.
When your father gets here, we will go.

Commas with adverb clauses - When an adverb clause is at the beginning of the sentence, it is an introductory clause and needs a comma separating it from the independent clause. If the adverb clause comes after the independent clause, the conjunction is enough to hold the two clauses together.

We will not have school today because it snowed last night.
Because it snowed last night, we will not have school today.

Locating adverb clauses - Adverb clauses modifying verbs can move around the sentence.

I missed the bus because my alarm didn't go off. Because my alarm didn't go off, I missed the bus. (The dependent clause because my alarm didn't go off modifies the verb missed. The dependent clause is adverbial because it tells why you missed the bus.)
Whenever it rains, my little sister loves to jump in the puddles. My little sister loves to jump in the puddles whenever it rains. (The dependent clause whenever it rains modifies the verb loves. The dependent clause is adverbial because it tells when your little sister jumps in the puddles.)

Adverb clauses modifying adjectives or adverbs must come after the word modified.

Playing football is dangerous if you don't have the right equipment.
We walked to class quickly as if we were going to be late.

Elliptical adverb clauses have missing words that are understood.

When finished this building will be the tallest in the city.
When [it is] finished this building will be the tallest in the city.

Practice What You've Learned

English grammar
Directions:
Click on all the words in each adverb clause.
1.
If you haven't seen the first movie in the series, the second one won't make much sense.
2.
I'm going to paint the walls blue unless you'd rather paint them a different color.
3.
My parents will pick us up from school today rather than risk our walking home in the rain.
4.
Silly because they had been given too much sugar, the kindergarteners rolled around on the floor giggling.
5.
When we finish this project, we will start yours.
6.
Although Cory already has a dress for the party, she is going to go to the mall to look for another one.
7.
Your grade was better than my grade was.
8.
Since they are wild animals, red pandas do not make good pets.
9.
Once published, that book should be a bestseller.
10.
We will visit the ruins of Herculaneum after we visit the ruins of Pompeii.
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