Definition: To demonstrate is to show something. Demonstrative pronouns show or point to objects or people.
|Close to Speaker||Far from Speaker|
This and that refer to singular objects or people.
This is an expensive store.
That is a very tall building.
These and those refer to plural objects or people.
These are very expensive shoes.
Those are the tallest skyscrapers in the city.
In addition to providing information about whether something is singular or plural, demonstrative pronouns indicate whether something is close to or far from the speaker. This and these refer to objects or people that are close to the speaker. That and those refer to objects or people far from the speaker.
Comparison 1: This vs. That
|This is my best friend.||The friend is close to the speaker. The speaker is likely introducing the friend to another person.|
|That is my best friend.||The friend is far away from the speaker (across the room, for example). The speaker is probably talking about the friend, not introducing him or her.|
Comparison 2: These vs. Those
|These are amazing cookies!||The speaker is holding or eating the cookies, or the cookies are close by.|
|Those are amazing cookies!||Someone other than the speaker is holding the cookies, or the cookies are not near the speaker.|
It is never correct to combine this with here or those with there. Here and there are understood in the pronouns.
here is my favorite movie.
there is the best movie ever.