English grammar

Module 1, Nouns, Lesson 3:

Singular and Plural Nouns 1

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English grammar

Definition: Singular means only one. Plural means more than one.

In order to make a noun plural, it is usually only necessary to add s. However, there are many irregular nouns that add es. The rules for spelling plural nouns are based on the letters at the end of the word. The chart below breaks up the rules into categories so that they are easier to remember.

Rule Examples
Most nouns Add s to form the plural. cat ⇒ cats
truck ⇒ trucks
bug ⇒ bugs
Nouns that end in s, sh, x, ch, or z Add es to form the plural. For words that end in z, add an extra z before the es.
Hint:
It is too hard to pronounce the words without the e. Try it – buss, brushs, foxs... You sound like a snake!
bus ⇒ buses
brush ⇒ brushes
fox ⇒ foxes
beach ⇒ beaches
quiz ⇒ quizzes
Nouns ending in f or fe Some nouns ending in f or fe just add s. Sometimes it is necessary to change the f to a v. In that case, always end the word with es.
Hint:
Check a dictionary if you are unsure which rule a noun follows.
roof ⇒ roofs
safe ⇒ safes
shelf ⇒ shelves
wife ⇒ wives

Practice What You've Learned

English grammar
Directions:
Choose the correct plural spelling of each word.
1.
monstermonstersmonsteres ... glassglasssglasses ... calfcalfscalves ... moviemoviesmoviees
2.
brushbrushsbrushes ... chiefchiefschieves ... giraffegiraffesgiraves ... pencilpencilspenciles
3.
switchswitchsswitches ... cookiecookiescookiees ... shelfshelfsshelves ... candlecandlescandlees
4.
angelangelsangeles ... boxboxsboxes ... leafleafsleaves ... teapotteapotsteapotes
5.
dishdishsdishes ... scarfscarfsscarves ... airplaneairplanesairplanees ... treetreestreees
6.
buzzbuzzsbuzzes ... cliffcliffsclives ... dashdashsdashes ... turtleturtlesturtlees
7.
poolpoolspooles ... flashflashsflashes ... chefchefscheves ... televisiontelevisionstelevisiones
8.
dressdresssdresses ... wolfwolfswolves ... flagflagsflages ... fireplacefireplacesfireplacees
9.
cardinalcardinalscardinales ... churchchurchschurches ... elfelfselves ... castlecastlescastlees
10.
lightbulblightbulbslightbulbes ... halfhalfshalves ... wishwishswishes ... bridgebridgesbridgees
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