English grammar

Module 1, Nouns, Lesson 4:

Singular and Plural Nouns 2

English grammar
Rule Examples
Nouns that end in vowel + y Add s to form the plural.
donkey ⇒ donkeys
monkey ⇒ monkeys
Nouns that end in vowel + o Add s to form the plural.
oreo ⇒ oreos
Nouns that end in consonant + y Change the y to i and add es to form the plural.
family ⇒ families
trophy ⇒ trophies
Nouns that end in consonant + o Easy rule:
Usually add es except for musical terms.

Complicated rule:
Some nouns that end in consonant o add es. Many can be spelled either way. Look in the dictionary if you want to be sure.

These nouns always add es: potato, tomato, hero, echo, banjo, embargo, veto, torpedo.

Here are the preferred spellings of some plural nouns: buffaloes, dominoes, mosquitoes, volcanoes, tornadoes, ghettos, mangos, mottos, cargos, halos, mementos.
Regular examples:
potato ⇒ potatoes
tomato ⇒ tomatoes
piano ⇒ pianos
soprano ⇒ sopranos
  • Words from foreign languages including musical terms add s.
  • Words that are proper nouns simply add s.
  • Words that are short forms of longer words simply add s.
Exception examples:
taco ⇒ tacos
kimono ⇒ kimonos
Eskimo ⇒ Eskimos
Picasso ⇒ Picassos
photo (photograph) ⇒ photos
kilo (kilogram) ⇒ kilos
memo (memorandum) ⇒ memos
Are you confused yet? The easiest way to handle these is to memorize the short list of nouns that must have es or to just add es to words with consonant o except foreign words.

Practice What You've Learned

English grammar
Choose the correct plural spelling of each word.
torpedotorpedostorpedoes ... cherrycherryscherries ... boyboysboies ... patiopatiospatioes
activityactivitysactivities ... tattootattoostattooes ... vetovetosvetoes ... waywayswaies
studiostudiosstudioes ... echoechosechoes ... pennypennyspennies ... daydaysdaies
poppypoppyspoppies ... joyjoysjoies ... stilettostilettosstilettoes ... journeyjourneysjourneies
kimonokimonoskimonoes ... volcanovolcanosvolcanoes ... berryberrysberries ... valleyvalleysvalleies
flyflysflies ... chimneychimneyschimneies ... librarylibraryslibraries ... photophotosphotoes
cellocelloscelloes ... buffalobuffalosbuffaloes ... daisydaisysdaisies ... alleyalleysalleies
turkeyturkeysturkeies ... storystorysstories ... keykeyskeies ... radioradiosradioes
discodiscosdiscoes ... dominodominosdominoes ... monkeymonkeysmonkeies ... companycompanyscompanies
ladyladysladies ... tacotacostacoes ... essayessaysessaies ... demodemosdemoes